Fishing is the activity of aiming to catch fish. Fish are typically captured in the wild. Methods for catching fish include hand gathering, spearing, netting, fishing as well as capturing. Fishing may include catching water animals apart from fish, such as molluscs, cephalopods, shellfishes, as well as echinoderms. The term is not typically related to catching farmed fish, or to water mammals, such as whales where the term whaling is better suited.
According to the United Nations FAO statistics, the complete variety of industrial fishermen as well as fish farmers is approximated to be 38 million. Fisheries as well as aquaculture provide direct as well as indirect employment to over 500 million individuals in establishing countries. In 2005, the worldwide per capita usage of fish recorded from wild fisheries was 14.4 kilograms, with an additional 7.4 kilograms harvested from fish ranches. Along with offering food, contemporary angling is also a recreational leisure activity.
Fishing is an ancient method that dates back to at the very least the start of the Upper Paleolithic duration about 40,000 years earlier. Isotopic analysis of the skeletal remains of Tianyuan male, a 40,000-year-old contemporary human from eastern Asia, has revealed that he regularly consumed freshwater fish. Archaeology functions such as covering middens, discarded fish bones, as well as cave paints show that sea foods was necessary for survival as well as eaten in significant quantities.
Throughout this duration, most individuals lived a hunter-gatherer way of life as well as were, of necessity, frequently on the move. However, where there are early instances of irreversible settlements (though not necessarily permanently inhabited) such as those at Lepenski Vir, they are often related to angling as a major resource of food.
The British dogger was an early on type of sailing trawler from the 17th century, but the modern fishing trawler was developed in the 19th century, at the English fishing port of Brixham. By early 19th century, the fishermen at Brixham had a need to expand their fishing area further than previously because of the ongoing depletion of stocks that has been occurring in the overfished waters of South Devon. The Brixham trawler that evolved there clearly was of a smooth build and had a tall gaff rig, which gave the vessel sufficient speed to make cross country trips out to the fishing grounds in the ocean. They certainly were also sufficiently robust to be able to tow large trawls in deep ocean. The fantastic trawling fleet that accumulated at Brixham, earned the village the title of'Mother of Deep-ocean Fisheries.
This extraordinary design made large scale trawling in the ocean feasible for initially, causing a mass movement of fishermen from the ports in the South of England, to villages further north, such as for example Scarborough, Hull, Grimsby, Harwich and Yarmouth, that have been points of access to the large fishing spot in the Atlantic Ocean.
The tiny village of Grimsby grew to become the largest fishing port on earth by the mid 19th century. An Act of Parliament was initially obtained in 1796, which authorised the construction of new quays and dredging of the Haven to make it deeper. It was only in the 1846, with the tremendous expansion in the fishing industry, that the Grimsby Dock Company was formed. The building blocks stone for the Royal Dock was laid by Albert the Prince consort in 1849. The dock covered 25 acres (10 ha) and was formally opened by Queen Victoria in 1854 as the initial modern fishing port.
The amazing Brixham trawler wide spread across the entire world, influence fishing fleets everywhere. By the conclusion of the 19th century, there were over 3,000 fishing trawlers in area in Britain, with nearly 1,000 at Grimsby. These trawlers were sold to fishermen accross Europe, including from the Netherlands and Scandinavia. Twelve trawlers continued to form the nucleus of the German fishing fleet.
The initial steam powered fishing boats first appeared in the 1870s and used the trawl system of fishing in addition to lines and drift nets. They were large boats, usually 80–90 feet (24–27 m) in length with a beam of around 20 feet (6.1 m). They weighed 40-50 tons and travelled at 9–11 knots (17–20 km/h; 10–13 mph). The initial purpose built fishing vessels were designed and created by David Allan in Leith, Scotland in March 1875, when he converted a drifter to steam power. In 1877, he built the initial screw propelled steam trawler in the world.
Steam trawlers were introduced at Grimsby and Hull in the 1880s. In 1890 it was estimated that there were 20,000 men on the North Sea. The steam drifter was not utilized in the herring fishery until 1897. The last sailing fishing trawler was built-in 1925 in Grimsby. Trawler designs adapted as the direction they were powered changed from sail to coal-fired steam by World War I to diesel and turbines by the conclusion of World War II.
In 1931, the initial powered drum was developed by Laurie Jarelainen. The drum was a circular device that has been set aside of the boat and would draw in the nets. Since World War II, radio navigation aids and fish finders have now been widely used. The initial trawlers fished over the medial side, as opposed to over the stern. The initial purpose built stern trawler was Fairtry built-in 1953 at Aberdeen, Scotland. The ship was much larger than any other trawlers then in operation and inaugurated the era of the'super trawler '. Whilst the ship pulled its nets over the stern, it may lift out a much greater haul as high as 60 tons. The ship served as a cause for the expansion of'super trawlers'around the globe in the next decades.