Fishing is the activity of aiming to catch fish. Fish are typically caught in the wild. Methods for catching fish include hand celebration, spearing, netting, angling and capturing. Fishing may include catching marine animals apart from fish, such as molluscs, cephalopods, crustaceans, and echinoderms. The term is not typically related to catching farmed fish, or to marine creatures, such as whales where the term whaling is more appropriate.
According to the United Nations FAO stats, the complete variety of industrial anglers and fish farmers is estimated to be 38 million. Fisheries and tank farming provide direct and indirect work to over 500 million people in creating countries. In 2005, the worldwide per head usage of fish captured from wild fisheries was 14.4 kilos, with an extra 7.4 kilos collected from fish farms. Along with supplying food, modern fishing is also an entertainment pastime.
Fishing is an old practice that goes back to a minimum of the start of the Upper Paleolithic period regarding 40,000 years back. Isotopic evaluation of the skeletal remains of Tianyuan guy, a 40,000-year-old modern human from eastern Asia, has revealed that he regularly ate freshwater fish. Archaeology attributes such as shell middens, thrown out fish bones, and cavern paintings show that sea foods was essential for survival and eaten in significant quantities.
Throughout this period, the majority of people lived a hunter-gatherer way of life and were, of requirement, constantly on the step. However, where there are early instances of permanent negotiations (though not always permanently occupied) such as those at Lepenski Vir, they are generally associated with fishing as a significant resource of food.
Englishmen dogger was an earlier form of sailing trawler from the 17th century, but the modern fishing trawler was developed in the 19th century, at the English fishing port of Brixham. By the early 19th century, the fishermen at Brixham needed to expand their fishing area further than previously due to the ongoing depletion of stocks which was occurring in the overfished waters of South Devon. The Brixham trawler that evolved there was of a smooth build and had a large gaff rig, which gave the vessel sufficient speed to produce long-distance trips out to the fishing grounds in the ocean. They were also sufficiently robust to manage to tow large trawls in deep ocean. The fantastic trawling fleet that built up at Brixham, received the village the title of'Mother of Deep-ocean Fisheries.
This revolutionary models made large scale trawling in the ocean possible for the first time, resulting in a massive migration of fishermen from the harbour in the South of England, to villages further north, such as for instance Scarborough, Hull, Grimsby, Harwich and Yarmouth, that have been points of access to the huge fishing grounds in the Atlantic Ocean.
The tiny village of Grimsby grew to become the biggest fishing port on the planet by the mid 19th century. An Act of Parliament was obtained in 1796, which authorised the construction of new quays and dredging of the Haven to produce it deeper. It was just in the 1846, with the tremendous expansion in the fishing industry, that the Grimsby Dock Company was formed. The building blocks stone for the Royal Dock was laid by Albert the Prince consort in 1849. The dock covered 25 acres (10 ha) and was formally opened by Queen Victoria in 1854 as the first modern fishing port.
The elegant Brixham trawler wide spread across the entire world, influencing fishing fleets everywhere. By the conclusion of the 19th century, there have been over 3,000 fishing trawlers in area in Britain, with merely 1,000 at Grimsby. These trawlers were sold to fishermen accross Europe, including from the Netherlands and Scandinavia. Twelve trawlers went on to form the nucleus of the German fishing fleet.
The earliest steam powered fishing boats first appeared in the 1870s and used the trawl system of fishing along with lines and drift nets. These were large boats, usually 80–90 feet (24–27 m) in length with a beam of around 20 feet (6.1 m). They weighed 40-50 tons and travelled at 9–11 knots (17–20 km/h; 10–13 mph). The earliest purpose built fishing vessels were designed and produced by David Allan in Leith, Scotland in March 1875, when he converted a drifter to steam power. In 1877, he built the first screw propelled steam trawler in the world.
Steam trawlers were introduced at Grimsby and Hull in the 1880s. In 1890 it had been estimated that there have been 20,000 men on the North Sea. The steam drifter was not found in the herring fishery until 1897. The final sailing fishing trawler was built in 1925 in Grimsby. Trawler designs adapted as the way they were powered changed from sail to coal-fired steam by World War I to diesel and turbines by the conclusion of World War II.
In 1931, the first powered drum was produced by Laurie Jarelainen. The drum was a round device which was set aside of the boat and would draw in the nets. Since World War II, radio navigation aids and fish finders have been widely used. The very first trawlers fished over the side, as opposed to on the stern. The very first purpose built stern trawler was Fairtry built in 1953 at Aberdeen, Scotland. The ship was much bigger than some other trawlers then functioning and inaugurated the era of the'super trawler '. Since the ship pulled its nets on the stern, it could lift out a much greater haul as high as 60 tons. The ship served as a basis for the expansion of'super trawlers'all over the world in the next decades.